WDTPRS Collect 4th Sunday of Ordinary Time: “Billy loves bugs.”

bugsToday’s prayer was not in the post-Tridentine editions of the Missale Romanum but it does have its origin in the ancient Veronese Sacramentary.

Were you to hear this prayer intoned in Latin, or at least in an accurate translation, you would be thereby transported back 1500 years to our most Roman of Catholic roots.

COLLECT – LATIN TEXT (2002MR):
Concede nobis, Domine Deus noster,
ut te tota mente veneremur,
et omnes homines rationabili diligamus affectu
.

OBSOLETE ICEL (1973):
Lord our God,
help us to love you with all our hearts
and to love all men as you love them.

Is this what the Latin really says?

NEW CORRECTED ICEL (2011):
Grant us, Lord our God,
that we may honour you with all our mind,
and love everyone in truth of heart
.

SLAVISHLY LITERAL TRANSLATION:
Grant us, O Lord our God,
that we may venerate you with our whole mind,
and may love all men with rational good-will
.

“Affection” just doesn’t cut it for affectus and something more pointed than “love” is needed too.  I came up with “rational good-will”.  We mustn’t reduce all these complicated Latin words to “love”.  Why not?  Note in the prayer the contrast of the themes “reason” and “mood”, the rational with the affective dimension (concerning emotions) of man; in short, the head and the heart.   The fact is, a properly functioning person conducts his life according to both head and heart, feelings under the control of reason and the will.  The terrible wound to our human nature from original sin causes the difficulty we have in governing feelings and appetites by reason and will.

Today’s prayer aims at the totality of a human person: our wholeness is defined by our relationship with God.

We seek to know God so that we may the better love Him and His love drives us all the more to know Him.  Furthermore, possible theological and Scriptural underpinnings of this prayer are Deuteronomy 6 and Jesus’ two-fold command to love God and neighbor: “You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind. This is the great and first commandment.  And a second is like it, You shall love your neighbor as yourself. On these two commandments depend all the law and the prophets” (cf. Matthew 22:36-38; Mark 12:2-31; Luke 10:26-28).  In Deut 6:5-6 we have the great injunction called the Shema from the first Hebrew word, “Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD; and you shall love the LORD your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your might….” Jesus teaches the meaning and expands the concrete application of this command in Deuteronomy 6.

There is no space here for the subtle relationships between the Latin words St. Jerome chose in his translations and the Greek or Hebrew originals of these verses.  Suffice it to say that in the Bible the language about mind, heart, and soul is terrifically complex. However, these words aim at the totality of the person precisely in that dimension which is characteristic of man as “image of God”.  Heart, mind and will distinguish us from brute animals.  We are made to act as God acts: to know, will and love.  Thus, “mind” and “heart” in man are closely related faculties and cannot be separated from each other.  Mind and heart are revealed in and expressed through our bodies and thus they point at the “real us”.

Love is at the heart of who we are and it the key to our prayer today.

We are commanded by God the Father and God Incarnate Jesus Christ to love both God and our fellow man and God the indwelling Holy Spirit makes this possible.

But the word and therefore concept of “love” is understood in many ways and today, especially, it is misunderstood.  “Love” frequently refers to people or stuff we like or enjoy using.  Bob can “love” his new SUV. Besty “loves” her new kitten.  We all certainly “love” baseball and spaghetti.  But “love” can refer to the emotions and affections people have when they are “in love” or, as I sometimes call it, “in luv”.

Luv is usually an ooey-gooey feeling, a romantic “love” sometimes growing out of lust.  This gooey romantic “love” now dominates Western culture, alas.   The result is that when “feelings” change or the object of “luv” is no longer enjoyable or useable, someone gets dumped, often for a newer, richer, or prettier model.

There some other flavors of “love” you can come up with, I’m sure.  But Christians, indeed every image of God in all times everywhere, are called to a higher love, the love in today’s prayer, which is charity: the grace-completed virtue enabling us to love God for His own sake and love all who are made in His image.  This is more than benevolence or tolerance or desire or enjoyment of use.

True love is not merely a response to an appetite, as when we might see a beautiful member of the opposite sex, a well-turned double-play, or a plate of spaghetti all’amatriciana.

True love, charity, isn’t the sloppy gazing of passion drunk sweethearts or the rubbish we see on TV and in movies (luv).  Charity is the grace filled adhesion of our will to an object (really a person) which has been grasped by our intellect to be good.

The love invoked in our prayer is an act of will based on reason. It is a choice – not a feeling.

Charity delights in and longs for the good of the other more than one’s own.  The theological virtue charity involves grace.  It enables sacrifices, any kind of sacrifice for the authentic good of another discerned with reason (not a false good and not “use” of the other).  We can choose even to love an enemy. This love resembles the sacrificial love of Christ on His Cross who offered Himself up for the good of His spouse, the Church.  St. Augustine, as a matter of fact, taught that “enemy love” is the perfection of the kind of love we can have in this earthly life.  Rationabilis affectus reflects what it is to be truly human, made in God’s image and likeness, with faculties of willing and knowing and, therefore, loving.

Knowledge and love are interconnected.

The more you get to know a person, the more reason you have to love him (remember… love seeks the other person’s good in charity even if a person is unlikable).  Reciprocally, the more you love someone or (in the generic sense of love) something, the more you want to know about him and spend time getting to know him.

For example, Billy is fascinated by bugs.  From this “love” for bugs Billy wants to know everything there is to know about them.  He works hard to learn and thus launches a brilliant career in entomology.  Given Our Creator’s priority in all things, how much more ought we seek to know and love God first and foremost of all and then, in proper order, know and love God’s images, our neighbors?  He is far more important that the bugs He created.  Even spouses must love God more than they love each other.  Only then can they love each other properly according to God’s plan.

We also have a relationship with the objects of both love and knowledge.  What sort of relationship?  With bugs or spaghetti it is one thing, but with God and neighbor it is entirely another.

In seeking to understand and love God more and more we come to understand things about God and ourselves as his images that, without love, we could never learn by simple study.  The relationship with God through love and knowledge changes us.  St. Bonaventure (+1274) the “Seraphic” doctor wrote about “ecstatic knowledge”. This kind of knowledge is not merely the product of abstract investigation or analytical study (like Billy with his bugs).  Rather, it comes first from learning and then contemplating. According to Bonaventure, by contemplation the knower becomes engaged with the object. Fascinated by it, he seeks to know it with a longing that draws him into the object.

Consider: we can study about God and our faith, but really the object of study is not just things to learn or formulas to memorize: the object of our study and faith is a divine Person in whose image and likeness we ourselves are made.  To be who we are by our nature we personally need the sort of knowledge of God that draws us into Him.  Knowledge of God (not just things learned about God) reaches into us, seizes us, transforms us.  To experience God’s love is to have certain knowledge of God, more certain than any knowledge which can be arrived at by means of mere rational examination.

Bring this all with you back to the last line of our prayer and the command to love our neighbor, all of them made in God’s image and all individually intriguing – fascinating, in a way that resembles the way we love God and ourselves.  This we are to do with our minds, hearts, and all our strength.


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About Fr. John Zuhlsdorf

Fr. Z is the guy who runs this blog. o{]:¬)
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15 Responses to WDTPRS Collect 4th Sunday of Ordinary Time: “Billy loves bugs.”

  1. KAS says:

    Thank you for an uplifting analysis of this prayer. I guess I needed a reminder that we have both the Faith AND the Reason aspects to our worship and that it is important to remember how much there really IS to being Catholic.

  2. philologus says:

    “I love lamp.”

    Thank you, Father, for this insightful analysis. Quem ad gradum sive quot quidem annos illi Latinam coluerint praesertim qui translationem (ad?)fecerunt primam, nonnumquam sane licet suspectum habere! Etiam propter hanc digressionem nullomodo peto veniam.

    “Good-will” I think is the best you can do in English with “affectus”. It is particularly a transitive good-will (ad-ficio), a good-will with results (not merely good intention).

  3. jcr says:

    Franciscanly speaking, I would connect the this rationabilis affectus with what Scotus calls the affectio justitiae, as opposed to the affectio commodi. The latter is the desire for something in view of the benefit one expects to receive, and can be either honest or not: the desire of a thief for what he steals (evil), the desire of a teenager for a pizza (honest), the desire to do good in view of the heavenly reward (supernaturally meritorious). The former desires to do what is right simply because it is right. This is the affectio, the disposition, of God’s will, and our will is most conformed to God’s when it is so disposed. This cannot be a permanent disposition on earth, because, as creatures, we are needy (there is no “state of pure love”). However, it can be the disposition of the will at times, and, in holy people, even frequently.

    The affectio justitae is rationabilis because of the conformity to the divine will: God’s will is infinitely rationabilis because it is really identical to the divine intellect. God cannot will anything irrational (evil) because it is the same thing (res) as His intellect, which is by nature infinitely reasonable (principle of non-contradiction).

    Thus, to love all men rationabili affectu would be to love them as God does, simply because it is right and just to do so, and not in view of some advantage one expects to receive (peace, friendship, etc.).

  4. rcg says:

    I think it is pretty cool that it happens on this day when Catholics are struggling with what to do about the health care issue. At what point is ‘charity’ no longer charity? The health care issue is an example of where people are wanting to give to make themselves feel better, not really anyone else.

  5. dep says:

    thank you, father. you made a pretty important light come on. (even as did something i read on fisheaters last night, an explanation of the uniqueness of Catholic belief.) i’m not yet fully illuminated, but there’s enough light now to see that full illumination is possible.

  6. NoTambourines says:

    I am continually amazed at the depth I never knew or expected in these prayers. Having been born in the late ’70s, I never knew what we weren’t getting until I started reading this site. What we pray — the words we use — form the intent of our minds, and the substance of the literal translation is to ICEL 1973 what an Old World Roggenbrot is to Wonder Bread.

    Vague, floppy prayers form vague, floppy hearts.

    Fr. Z is right. When you love someone, you want to know all you can about them, the better to serve them. To become more serious about my Catholic faith is to become curious about its traditions, which sometimes seem to be dropped down the memory hole and no longer spoken of.

  7. leonugent2005 says:

    1) help us to love you with all our hearts
    2) that we may honour you with all our mind
    These two translations of the same text are an interesting juxtaposition

  8. leonugent2005 says:

    1 Corinthians 13:2
    Douay-Rheims 1899 American Edition (DRA)
    2And if I should have prophecy and should know all mysteries, and all knowledge, and if I should have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not charity, I am nothing.

  9. pgarnaas says:

    Once again I have printed Fr. Z’s SundayCollect reflection for my husband, a relatively recent convert from Lutheranism. Thank you, Father, for giving us the fruits of your scholarship and prayer. This time I have copied the comments too, since NoTambourines will help me better explain to him why I have spent 40+ years hating prior English translations (I grew up with the great St. Andrews daily missal).

    This week’s collect and Fr. Z’s reflection on it put me in mind of a recent post at Msgr. Pope’s blog at the Archd. of Washington, D.C. website that I found eloquent on loving God:
    To Love God is a Gift that is Received, not Acheived

  10. michelelyl says:

    This is exactly how Fr. Leo Celano, O. Praem. (St. Michael’s Abbey, Silverado CA) explained the difference of “Love” and “Luv” in my 12th grade Apologetics class back in 1977 at Mater Dei High School. I never forgot that lesson!

  11. It occurs to me that perhaps ICEL did well to avoid “good-will” in favor of “truth of heart” for affectu. Because, just as love has degenerated into luv in our time, so may good-will have come to connote vacuous grip-n-grin good cheer.

  12. James Joseph says:

    Oh! A four-nail crucifix. How lovely. Gives my soul a boost.

  13. Jack007 says:

    My analysis of Fr. Z’s commentary on love… Home run!
    Most inspiring.
    Thanks for that Father!

    Jack in KC

  14. NescioQuid says:

    Fr Z, thanks for an informative post. Since, as you point out, Latin is much more subtly nuanced, It does highlight the possible deficiencies of the English language, or perhaps it is a reflection of the spirit of English? Can we attain as beautiful a translation as the Latin original? Where language represents something of the culture of its people, have we simply moved towards an overly reductive culture, particularly with respect to the concept of virtues and “love”? Just food for thought…

  15. pm125 says:

    “The terrible wound to our human nature from original sin causes the difficulty we have in governing feelings and appetites by reason and will.”
    This difficulty has got to be why we were given the gift of the Third Commandment.