WDTPRS 16th Ordinary Sunday: The Enemy is seeking you!

The Collect for the 16th Ordinary Sunday, not in any pre-Conciliar Missale Romanum, has its antecedent in a 9th century manuscript.  Enjoy the fine clausula (rhythmic ending).

We have been cheated of the beauty of our Catholic worship in Latin, which is our common patrimony. After such a gap of time, it will be difficult to grasp these tightly woven ancient Latin Collects with their lovely rhythms, their clarity of thought, their force.  After many centuries they still communicate the profound intellectual formation and the faith of their composers, our Christian family ancestors.

Propitiare, Domine, famulis tuis, et clementer gratiae tuae super eos dona multiplica, ut, spe, fide et caritate ferventes, semper in mandatis tuis vigili custodia perseverent.

Famulus and feminine famula appear frequently in our prayers.  Famulus is probably from Latin’s ancient cousin, the Oscan faama, “house.”   A Latin famulus or famula was a household servant or hand-maid, slave or free. They were considered members of the larger family.

Custodia is “a watching, guard, care, protection” and has the military overtone of “guard, sentinel”.  Vigil is “wakeful, watchful”, and, like custodia, can also be “a watchman, sentinel”.  Liturgically, a “vigil” is the evening and night before a great feast day.  In ancient times vigils were times of fasting and penance.  Men who were to be knighted kept a night’s vigil. They were watchful against the attacks of the world, the flesh and the Devil.  They fasted, prayed, and examined their consciences in order to be pure for the rites to follow.


Look propitiously on Your servants, O Lord, and indulgently multiply upon them the gifts of Your grace so that, burning with faith, hope and charity, they may persevere always in your commands with vigilant watchfulness.


Lord, be merciful to your people. Fill us with your gifts and make us always eager to serve you in faith, hope, and love.


Show favor, O Lord, to your servants and mercifully increase the gifts of your grace, that, made fervent in hope, faith and charity, they may be ever watchful in keeping your commands.

Scripture often gives us images of watches during the night.  At the birth of the Lord shepherds “were keeping watch over their flock by night (vigilantes et custodientes vigilias noctis)” (Luke 2:8).  Jesus said, “Watch (vigilate) therefore, for you do not know on what day your Lord is coming. But know this, that if the householder had known in what part of the night the thief was coming, he would have watched (vigilaret) and would not have let his house be broken into. Therefore you also must be ready; for the Son of man is coming at an hour you do not expect” (Matthew 24:42-44).   Our Lord explains that servants should keep watch in order to open the door for the master of the house even if he returns in the dead of the night (cf Luke 12:37-39).  St Paul constantly urges Christians to be “watchful”.  In 1 Peter 5:8 we read sobering, “Be sober, be watchful. Your adversary the Devil prowls around like a roaring lion, seeking someone to devour”.

The Enemy is seeking you!  (1 Peter 5:8)

In the ancient Roman countryside there were great estates (cf. latifundium) having many buildings for family, household servants, the various workers, storage, etc.  These dwellings were often self-sufficient, and were surrounded with walls against attacks by brigands.  Even into Renaissance times, a great house in a city (domus) might be fortified with watch towers.  The householder or the lord of the estate was the head or father of the larger “family”.  Kind or cruel, the paterfamilias was judge, protector and provider to everyone under his care.

Simple ancient famuli had to work to produce good fruits in order to survive with a good quality of life and a safe place to belong.  Sophisticated modern famuli, marked with the family name “Christian”, marked permanently with the family seal through baptism and confirmation, must produce fruits according to our vocations.

When life’s reckoning comes, will we be like the foolish virgins? They watched all night for the arrival of the Bridegroom, but they didn’t have enough oil for their lamps.  They were locked out of the house in the dangerous night with no place to go, no work to do, no purpose to fulfill. They no longer belonged.

Vigilate… Watch therefore, for you know neither the day nor the hour” (Matthew 25:13).

When you hear the priest pronounce this Collect, beg our Lord – so gracious and patient with us even when we are lazy and sinful – to continue giving us gifts of faith, hope and charity we need for the very survival of our souls.

If people prepare for bad times and disasters that can occur in respect to worldly things, how much more important is it to prepare for hardship or attacks or even that final moment of reckoning in the spiritual plane?

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About Fr. John Zuhlsdorf

Fr. Z is the guy who runs this blog. o{]:¬)
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6 Responses to WDTPRS 16th Ordinary Sunday: The Enemy is seeking you!

  1. Geoffrey says:

    Deo gratias for the new translation of The Roman Missal!

  2. amenamen says:

    And a two …, then a one …, and a three …

    The biblical ordering of the three things that last (“faith, hope and charity”) is so familiar, that the variation in this collect (“spe, fide, [ET]caritate ferventes”) seems to beg for an explanation. I suppose it is just to throw the expected rhythm off balance a little.

    [Seek ye the answer in the rhythm of the language.]

  3. zag4christ says:

    Thank you for the timely exegesis. It is a continual amazement to me that in the normal course of a day, there are “coincidences” that occur, whether it be an encounter with a person, a sudden realization while going about normal everyday chores, or when logs on to this blog and sees the bloody face of a lion. Thanks again.
    Peace and God bless.

  4. Vecchio di Londra says:

    ‘Propitio’ is an interesting example of the way word meanings developed in the Christian era. We know the English word ‘propitiate’ – as in ‘to placate the gods with sacrifices’. This was its meaning in classical Latin. But there was also an adjective, ‘propitius’, meaning favourable, pleasing, well-disposed, kind: and the English word ‘propitious’ has the association of hopeful-looking, as in ‘the weather signs are propitious’. So it seems Christians (who instinctively avoided the linguistic associations of the ancient Roman religion) changed the old pagan sacrificial meaning, turning it instead 180 degrees into a word for the act of favour shown *by* God *to* mankind.

  5. Vecchio di Londra says:

    Just had an afterthought about the word ‘Propitiare’. I was assuming it is the infinitive in use as a an imperative active, but is it possibly being used in this Collect as a 2nd sing imperative *passive*?
    In which case my idea above about the post-Christian transformation of the verb into its opposite would be wrong…
    Any latinists out there who might have an idea?

  6. robtbrown says:

    IMHO, Hope (Spe) is mentioned first because of the verb persevere (subj–perseverent) . Hope is the desire for a future possible good.

    The contrary vices against Hope are presumption and despair. The former considers that the good is not future but already attained. The latter considers the good to be not attainable.

    It should be easy to see the relationship of hope to perseverance and how despair and presumption undermine someone persevering