QUAERITUR: Latin endings for prayers – which one?

I got another question which I don’t have time to answer at the moment, so I will put it out there for you readers to work on.

Dear Father,

I’m a fan of the blog.  I have a question, and I wonder if you’ve written about the topic.  How do I know when to end a prayer with the short form "Per Christum Dominum nostrum" and when to use the long form "Per Dominum Nostrum Jesum Christum, Filium Tuum, qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitate Spiritus Sancti, Deus, per omnia saecula saeculorum"?

Other things I’ve see that confuse me:

– When the prayer ends with a third-person reference to Our Lord, then says, "Qui vivit et regnat, &c."  What follows?  I’d guess something like "tecum, in unitate Spiritus Sancti…"  But I’m not sure about the "tecum."

– When the prayer ends just "Per eumdem."  (Like after the closing prayer of Sext in my Little Office of the BVM).  Does that indicate the long or short form?

– "None" ends with "Per eumdem, &c."  This brings up the same question as above for Sext.

–  Some of the Marian Antiphons end with "Per eumdem Christum, &c."  The way it starts suggest to me the short form, but then why wasn’t it just written out?  The "&c" makes me think the long form is indicated.

Anyway, long question, but I hope either you or one of your readers could help!

 

Once you get used to the abbreviated conclusions following the texts of the prayers, it goes along rather easily.  They depend on the one to whom you are addressing the prayer.

The readers, however, will I am sure get into the details.

QUAERITUR: Latin endings for prayers – which one?
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17 Responses to QUAERITUR: Latin endings for prayers – which one?

  1. Daniel says:

    If the prayer is addressed to God Father:

    Per Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum, Filium tuum: Qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitate Spiritus Sancti Deus: per omnia saecula saeculorum. R. Amen.

    If the prayer is addressed to God Father, but God Son is mentioned at the beginning of the prayer:

    Per eundem Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum, Filium tuum: Qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitate Spiritus Sancti Deus: per omnia saecula saeculorum. R. Amen.

    If God Son is mentioned at the end of the prayer:

    Qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitate Spiritus Sancti Deus: per omnia saecula saeculorum. R. Amen.

    If the prayer is addressed to God Son:

    Qui vivis et regnas cum Deo Patre in unitate Spiritus Sancti Deus: per omnia saecula saeculorum. R. Amen.

    If God Holy Ghost is mentioned in the prayer:

    Per Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum, Filium tuum: Qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitate eiusdem Spiritus Sancti Deus: per omnia saecula saeculorum. R. Amen.

  2. Thomas says:

    GREAT question for those of us with little or no experience in the latin
    prayer tradition – like myself – but no one to learn from or even ask.

    I have searched for this bit of information for a long time now, because these
    abbreviated prayer endings are everywhere. But every book or missal I look in
    seems to assume that the reader already knows. So any instruction would be most helpful.

  3. anonymous says:

    GREAT question for those of us with little or no experience in the latin
    prayer tradition – like myself – but no one to learn from or even ask.

    I have searched for this bit of information for a long time now, because these
    abbreviated prayer endings are everywhere. But every book or missal I look in seems to assume that the reader already knows. So any instruction would be most helpful.

  4. John P says:

    Rubricae Generales of the Missale Romanum Section 115 (1962)

  5. Flambeaux says:

    There is also a good 1 page summary of them in the Monastic Diurnal.

  6. Jimmy G. says:

    The first comments did a great job at answering the second question. Great formatting!

    As for the first part of the question, the shorter “Per Christum Dominum nostrum” is used in the non-principle prayers of the reformed liturgies of the NO. (Somebody please correct me on this, if I am wrong.) In Matins, Lauds, Vespers, and the Holy Sacrifice, the collect for the day always ends with the longer “Per Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum…” and its variations. I suppose you can say that it adds to the solemnity of these principle liturgies. The shorter “Per Christum Dominum nostrum” is a newer formula and concludes the not-so-solemn prayers. This shorter conclusion is at the end of the Concluding Prayer of the Day Hours of the Office as well as at the end of the Offertory and Post-Communion Prayers of the Mass. I would imagine that they shortened the conclusion of some prayers in an effort to reduce repetitions in the liturgies.

    There is one exception, at least in the English translations. With our current Missal, there are two options for the Collect for Sundays. One of these options is from the Missale Romanum and so has the longer “Per Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum…” The other of these options is newly composed and generally has the shorter “Per Christum Dominum nostrum” for a conclusion. I do not have the Missale Romanum and so cannot prove this.

    In regards to the Office, check the Ordinary. It says there which conclusion to use. (E.g. under Lauds, it should give the full conclusion and all its variants.)

    Again, I am very sure about all this, but a confirmation would be nice.

    Pax,
    Jimmy

  7. Dev Thakur says:

    I asked the original question. Thank you for replies so far, they are very helpful. I’m still confused about the specifics I mentioned. For example, when I see “qui vivit et regnat &c” … the “tecum” isn’t there between “qui” and “vivit.” So do I add it after “regnat”? Or there’s no “tecum”?

    I guess I’m confused because there should only be three long forms, not counting the use of eumdem or ejusdem, but there seem to be more than three introduction-thingies.

  8. prof. basto says:

    The new prayer for the conversion of the jews in the 1962 Missal ends with a simple “per Christum Dominum nostrum”, instead of the longer ending used for collects (and for the other general intercessions of the Passion Liturgy).

    Perhaps a lapse on the part of our Holy Father when drafting the text of the new prayer?

  9. Josh says:

    Dev Thakur:

    Where are you seeing “qui vivit et regnat &c” without the “tecum”? Is this in Baronius’ Little Office, by chance? I believe that is a typo. When it’s in the third person (viviT et regnaT), there is always the “tecum,” since God the Father is being addressed. But when in the second person (viviS et regnaS), Christ is being addressed, and so there is added “cum Deo Patre” (with God the Father).

  10. Paul Waddington says:

    For anyone who has a copy of the St Andrew’s Missal, the endings are explained at the front. This is possibly where Daniel got his information.

  11. Patrick says:

    Dev,

    In the Ordinary Form, Daytime Prayer ends with “per Christum Dominum nostrum.” If that prayer, however, mentions Christ at the end, it ends with “qui vivit et regnat.” If it is addressed to Christ, it ends “qui vivis et regnas.” There is no “tecum” because it does not have a trinitarian ending. The collect of Mass, Office of Readings, Lauds and Vespers does have a trinitarian ending, so it will include “tecum.”

  12. Dev Thakur says:

    Josh: Yes, it’s in the Baronius Little Office! I’m glad it’s a typo — I sensed something wasn’t right, but now I’ll know what to pray.

    Everyone: I understand this issue better now — thanks again for all your help.

  13. “Tecum” is actually two words te-cum, with thee. In the other ending only “cum” is need since the simple “te-” is replaces by the specific “Deo Patri”.

    I certainly agree that these endings are important and enhance the beauty of the preceding prayer. For that reason, I always include the entire ending in my printed worship aid.

  14. Bob Ronau says:

    The five conclusions are also included, with explanation when to use them, at page xlvi of the Roman Catholic Daily Missal (Angelus Press). I could not find the conclusions in the corresponding Baronius Press Daily Missal.

  15. BR. Pius, OP says:

    The following is from the regulations passed for the Dominican Rite in 1961. I assume the Roman way is similar:

    Conclusio orationum tam in Missa quam in Officio haec est:
    a) si oratio dirigitur ad Patrem, concluditur: Per Dominum nostrum Iesum Christum Filium tuum, qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitate Spiritus Sancti Deus, per omnia saecula saeculorum. Amen;
    b) si oratio, dirigitur ad Patrem, sed in eius principio fit mentio Filii concluditur: Per eundem Dominum nostrum, etc., ut supra;
    c) si oratio dirigitur ad Patrem, sed in fine ipsius fit mentio Filii, concluditur: Qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitate Spiritus Sancti, Deus: per omma saecula saeculorum. Amen;
    d) si oratio dirigitur ad Filium, concluditur: Qui vivis et regnas cum Deo Patre in unitate Spiritus Sancti, Deus, per omnia saecula saeculorum. Amen;
    e) si in oratione facta est mentio Spiritus Sancti, in conclusione dicitur: … in unitate eiusdem Spiritus Sancti, etc.

  16. Joshua says:

    Important points:

    1. When the short endings are used, they are as follows:

    Per Christum Dominum nostrum.

    Per eumdem Christum Dominum nostrum. (If the Son be mentioned earlier, even if only obliquely, as when the Mother *of God* is mentioned as such – but in the modern form, the word “eumdem” is not used, so this special form no longer exists in it.)

    Qui tecum vivit et regnat in sæcula sæculorum. (If the Son be mentioned at the end – note the change from “per omnia” to “in” – note further that the Dominican Rite always uses “per omnia”, even here; note also that in the modern liturgy, the word “tecum” is omitted here.)

    Qui vivis et regnas in sæcula sæculorum. (If the prayer be addressed to the Son – see previous comments.)

    2. In the Ordinary Form, a.k.a. the Novus Ordo, the terms “eumdem”, “ejusdem”, etc. are not used, unfortunately – this is apparently a reversion to an older medieval usage: for the “eumdem”‘s were only added into the Roman Canon in the curial Missal of 1474, I recall.

  17. gary says:

    I picked up the Baronius Little Office myself a couple of weeks ago. The book is great overall, but I was disappointed at the large number of typos throughout. Hopefully, these will be corrected in future printings.