Protocol for a Cardinal Elect

My memory is a little fuzzy:

First, before a consistory but after the promulgation of the names of the new Cardinals

1) Do we call them "Your Eminence"?  I think so.

2) They could vote in a conclave even if, quod Deus avertat, the Pontiff who named them should die before the consistory.  I think so.

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  1. Paul Stokell says:

    Per Noonan’s The Church Visible, a man named a cardinal may be called “Your Eminence,” even before being given the red hat.

  2. Daniel Anselmo says:

    We do not have any Marini in the list… :)

  3. Joe says:

    Canon 351 §2 says: “Cardinals are created by a decree of the Roman Pontiff which is made public in the presence of the college of cardinals. From the moment of the announcement they are bound by the duties and possess the rights defined by law.”

    In light of this, I don’t think that they could vote in a conclave if the Pope were to die before the consistory. For the consistory is the official announcement “in the presence of the college of cardinals.”

  4. prof. basto says:

    Vatican protocol DOES NOT accord Cardinals-designate the title “Eminence”.

    The “Bolletino della Sala Stampa della Santa Sede” keeps records of audiences,
    as you know, and, if you check them, you will see, for instance
    that an Archbishop who is a Cardinal-designate is treated as “S.E. Mons.”

    So far, the only thing the pope did was to announce an intention, the intention
    of performing the act described in canon 351, paragraph 2. “I intend to create…”


    I think that you are confusing the situation of a Cardinal-designate who
    hasn’t been created in consistory yet with the situation of a Cardinal that
    has been created in consistory but who has not received the Red Hat, the Ring
    or taken the oath.

    A Cardinal-designate becomes a Cardinal when the pope pronounces, in the
    presence of the public consistory (the assembly of the “other” Cardinals present
    in Rome, because, up to that point, the Cardinals-designate are not part of
    that assembly yet), the words decreeing the creation of the new Cardinals.

    Now, as you know, new Cardinals do not receive their rings on the same date of
    their creation as cardinals. According to present usage, while the red
    birretas are given during the consistory itself, and while the oath is also
    taken during the consistory, the conferral of the rings usually takes place
    during Mass on the next day.

    And it used to be the case, in times past (in the times of Pius X, Pius XI),
    that the pope wouldn’t make a previous announcement of his intention to hold
    a consistory for the creation of new cardinals specifying the names of the
    men he wanted to promote to the Sacred College.

    Instead, the pope would simply call a consistory, and that could be due to
    several reasons (to approve decrees of the Causes of Saints, etc). Then, in
    the presence of the Consistory of his Cardinals, and without the presence of
    any Cardinal-designate, the pope would read the decree promoting certain men
    to the Sacred College.

    Thus, in the past, one would become Cardinal without
    being present in Rome (think of St. John Fisher), without receiving simultaneously the Red Hat and
    without taking the oath simultaneously. But, because his name had already been
    published in consistory, his creation as a Cardinal was accomplished, and, to
    dispel any doubts, the Popes decreed, and it is a norm of present Church law,
    that a cardinal the name of which was published in consistory enjoys all the
    rights and duties of the office, including the style of eminence, the right
    to wear red and the right to take part in a Conclave, even if, by the time of
    the Conclave, he did not have the opportunity of taking the oath before the
    Pontiff or of receiving from him the Red Hat.

    This norm is still part of Church law, but it became somewhat moot due to the fact
    that these days the Cardinals-desigate ARE present at the consistory in which
    their creation is published, and they immediately take the oath and receive
    the Red Birretta in lieu of the Red Hat.

  5. Berolinensis says:

    Yes, what Prof. Basto so eloquently explained is contained in No. 36 of Universi Dominici Gregis:
    “Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Cardinalis, dummodo creatus renuntiatusque in Consistorio sit, hac ipsa de causa ius eligendi Pontificis possidet secundum huius Constitutionis praescriptum in n. 33, etiamsi nondum ipsi pileus est impositus neque anulus creditus neque ius iurandum is pronuntiavit.”

  6. prof. basto says:

    Apostolic Constitution Universi Dominici Gregis, article 36, requires that
    Cardinals must have been published before a consistory, and contains the above
    mentioned rule regarding Cardinals who were published before a consistory
    but who haven’t received the hat, the ring or taken the oath. So you see that
    today’s action is just an announcement of a future event, and that today’s
    announcement is of no juridical consequence, given that the law requires the
    formal publication before a consistory, even though it does not require the
    taking of the oath or the actual delivery of the ring and hat. The above
    mentioned article reads:

    36. A Cardinal of Holy Roman Church who has been created and published before the College of Cardinals thereby has the right to elect the Pope, in accordance with the norm of No. 33 of the present Constitution, even if he has not yet received the red hat or the ring, or sworn the oath. On the other hand, Cardinals who have been canonically deposed or who with the consent of the Roman Pontiff have renounced the cardinal- ate do not have this right. Moreover, during the period of vacancy the College of Cardinals cannot readmit or rehabilitate them.

  7. Matthew Mattingly says:

    I suppose it is too much to hope that Pope Benedict XVI would surprise the world and would decree that for this special occasion, cardinals would wear the red cardinalatial cappa magna in addition to the red cassock. Daydreaming probably to hope for the return of the gallero. Even more wishful thinking that the consistory be held in St. Peter’s Basilica itself ( as it used to be 50-60 tears ago) rather than in the ugly Paul VI audience hall, or outside in St. Peter’s Square a la John Paul II.
    I’m alittle disappointed with Pope Benedict XVI that for grand occasions at least…everything still smacks of John Paul II. I would love to see something of a return to Catholic tradition in this consistory, like the elements I mentioned above, or the Pope sitting on a real Papal throne to distribute the red Cardinal hats, and not on that little highback chair which could come from a drawing room/living room/main hall of a manor hours or mansion. Doesn’t look like much. Benedict XVI at Christmastime used a Papal throne which hadn’t been seein since the day’s of John XXIII. Maybe He will make use of it again for this occasion.

  8. techno_aesthete says:

    Matthew, perhaps what you think of as “a la John Paul II” was actually “a la Piero Marini.” Let us give the new MC of Papal Liturgies a chance, eh? I have read that Pope Benedict XVI prefers to hold liturgies, especially Mass, inside St. Peter’s. He has, in fact, held many liturgies inside St. Peter’s. However, he also is considerate of the large crowds that come and cannot fit inside the basilica.

  9. Catholicus says:

    Yes I think even in cases of where a cardinal has been created ‘in pectore’ he is not able to act out his office until the public announcement (and that even if he has been informed of the pope’s decision). A bit of a funny situation, I would have thought. I often speculate whether the Holy Father has chosen me a lay cardinal, in his heart, and that if so, I might never know.

  10. David Cheney says:

    It is clear that the Holy Father by making the announcement on Wednesday did _not_ intend that to be the official publication. And the reason is simply his introduction.

    He mentions that he is abrogating “by one” the rule of 120 Cardinal Electors. The key point there is “by one”. For today there are 104 Cardinals under the age of 80 and thus Cardinal Electors.

    He named 18 new Cardinal Electors. Thus giving us 122 Cardinal Electors if he intended the announcement as the official publication.

    It should be noted that Cardinal Sodano turns 80 and loses the right to vote on 23 November.

    So, if the Holy Father intends to aborgate the rule “by one” as he clearly stated, then the official publication can not occur before 23 November. (And, of course, 24 November is the stated date for the Consistory itself.)

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