Archbp. Chaput on St. Thomas More in light of Obamacare

In the light of the Obama Administration’s attack on our religious freedom, this piece deserves wide circulation:

A Man for This Season, and All Seasons

by Charles J. Chaput
within Religion and the Public Square

December 19th, 2012

There is only one Thomas More: A man of tender nobility, subtle intellect, and forceful conviction, all rooted in profound fidelity to the larger commonwealth of Christendom outside and above Tudor England.

A day after the 2012 Summer Olympics closed in London, Joseph Pearce wrote that he felt like his “body had been covered in slime. I also felt a great sense of gratitude that I had shaken the smut and dirt from my sandals and had left the sordid culture of which I was once a part.”

Given the grand sweep of British history, those are harsh words from a former Londoner. An English Catholic convert and author, Pearce is now a resident Fellow at Thomas More College in New Hampshire. But he merely said what many people thought: that the Olympic closing ceremony they watched on global television was one long liturgy of overripe vulgarity, a jamboree of cheesy and offensive pop culture. In effect, it showcased a nation grasping to reinvent itself by escaping back to adolescence while ignoring its own real past.

This shouldn’t surprise us. Europe’s work of reinvention, or self-delusion, has been going on for decades, not only in Britain but across the continent. One of the key obstacles to the process is the depth of Europe’s Christian roots. As recent popes and many others have pointed out, there really is no “Europe” without its historic Christian grounding. Anyone wanting a new Britain, or a new Europe, needs to get rid of the old one first. So diminishing Christianity and its influence becomes a priority. And that includes rewriting the narrative on many of Christianity’s achievements and heroes.

By way of evidence: Consider the case of Thomas More, lawyer, humanist, statesman and saint; martyred by England’s King Henry VIII in 1535; canonized in 1935; celebrated in Robert Bolt’s brilliant 1960 play A Man for All Seasons; and more recently trashed as proud, intolerant, and devious in Hilary Mantel’s best-selling 2009 novel, Wolf Hall, now set for release as a 2013 BBC2 miniseries.

Critics of More are not new. His detractors had a voice well before his beheading. As Henry VIII’s chancellor, he earned a reputation as a hammer of heretics and a fierce opponent of Martin Luther and William Tyndale. Yet Erasmus of Rotterdam revered More as a scholar and friend. Jonathan Swift, the great Anglo-Irish writer, described him as “a person of the greatest virtue this kingdom [of England] ever produced.” When Pope John Paul II named Thomas More as patron saint of statesmen in 2000, he cited More’s witness to the “primacy of truth over power” at the cost of his life. He noted that even outside the Church, More “is acknowledged as a source of inspiration for a political system which has as its supreme goal the service of the human person.”

Ten years later, speaking to leaders of British society in Westminster Hall, Pope Benedict XVI returned to the same theme. Benedict noted that More “is admired by believers and non-believers alike for the integrity with which he followed his conscience, even at the cost of displeasing the sovereign whose ‘good servant’ he was, because he chose to serve God first.”

So which is it: More the saint or More the sinner? Was he the ruthless, sexually repressed rage addict suggested by historians like G.R. Elton, fearful of change and driven by helpless fury? Or was he the humble and generous “man for all seasons” praised by his friend Robert Whittinton and so many others among his contemporaries? Were there really two Thomas Mores: the young, open-minded humanist, and the older royal courtier, gripped by religious fanaticism?

The moral integrity of More’s life has been argued with persuasive skill in the various works of Gerard Wegemer, among many others. And Peter Ackroyd’s fine biography, The Life of Thomas More, vividly captures the whole extraordinary man–his virtues, his flaws, and the decisive nature of his moment in history. Travis Curtright has now added to the luster of the real More’s legacy with his excellent new book The One Thomas More.

As the title suggests,Curtright sees Thomas More’s life as a consistent, organic record of Christian witness, start to finish; a thoroughly logical integration of humanism, piety, politics and polemical theology. There is only “one” Thomas More–a man of tender nobility, subtle intellect, and forceful conviction, all rooted in profound fidelity to the larger commonwealth of Christendom outside and above Tudor England. For Curtright, More embodied “the Erasmian ideal of wedding learning with virtue,” lived through a vigorous engagement with temporal affairs. He treats More’s scholarly critics with proper respect while methodically dismantling their arguments; and he does it by carefully unpacking and applying three of More’s most important written works: The Life of Pico Mirandola, The History of Richard III, and Utopia.

Curtright correctly sees that More’s real source of annoyance for many modern revisionist critics is his faith. If revisionists like Elton implicitly define “humanism” as excluding religious faith, then a man like Thomas More and the whole vast Christian tradition of integrating faith and reason become serious irritants. As Curtright observes:

The entire structures of the two Mores and real More theories congeal around [critics’] notions of a “true” humanism that excludes the possibility of faith and reason working together, a position transparently stated by [G.R.] Elton and one that influences contemporary condemnations of More as a “fanatic.”

Bickering over the “real” Thomas More has importance beyond the scholarly community. Why? Because just as the nutty premises of Dan Brown’s The Da Vinci Code confused millions by reinventing the backstory of Christian belief, so too the novel Wolf Hall offers a revisionist Thomas More wrapped in popular melodrama. The author, Hilary Mantel, a lapsed Catholic whose disgust for the Church is a matter of public record, drew her portrait of More in part from the work of Elton. The “hero” of her novel is Thomas Cromwell–More’s tormentor, and in reality, a man widely loathed by his contemporaries as an administratively gifted but scheming and vindictive bully. Unlike the widespread European shock that greeted More’s judicial murder, few wept for Cromwell when he finally followed More to the scaffold.

The One Thomas More is not a book for beachside browsing. While it’s well-written, modest in size and rich in content, it is a scholarly effort. Some casual readers may find it heavier than they bargained for. But as a resource on Thomas More, it’s invaluable. Curtright’s final chapter, “Iconic Mores on Trial,” has special importance. It directly challenges Mantel’s loose treatment of facts, for which it deserves wide circulation.

Having said all this, Thomas More has been dead nearly 500 years. Why should his legacy matter today?

Barring relief from the courts, Christian entities, employers, and ministers in the coming year will face a range of unhappy choices. As the Affordable Care Act takes force and the HHS contraceptive mandate imposes itself on Christian life, Catholic and other Christian leaders can refuse to comply, either declining to pay the consequent fines in outright civil disobedience, or trying to pay them; they can divest themselves of their impacted Christian institutions; they can seek some unexplored compromise or way of circumventing the law; or they can simply give in and comply with the government coercion under protest.

Good people can obviously disagree on the strategy to deal with such serious matters. But the cost of choosing the last course–simply cooperating with the HHS mandate and its evil effects under protest–would be bitterly high and heavily damaging to the witness of the Church in the United States. Having fought loudly and hard for religious liberty over the past year, in part because of the HHS mandate, America’s Catholic bishops cannot simply grumble and shrug, and go along with the mandate now, without implicating themselves in cowardice. Their current resolve risks unraveling unless they reaffirm their opposition to the mandate forcefully and as a united body. The past can be a useful teacher. One of its lessons is this: The passage of time can invite confusion and doubt–and both work against courage.

Again: Why does Thomas More still matter? Why does he matter right now?

More’s final work, scribbled in the Tower of London and smuggled out before his death, was The Sadness of Christ. In it, he contrasts the focus and energy of Judas with the sleepiness of the Apostles in the Garden of Gethsemane. He then applies the parable to his own day and the abject surrender of England’s bishops to the will of Henry VIII: “Does not this contrast between the traitors and the Apostles present to us a clear and sharp mirror image . . . a sad and terrible view of what has happened through the ages from those times to our own? Why do not bishops contemplate in this scene their own somnolence?”

More urges the bishops not to fall asleep “while virtue and the faith are placed in jeopardy.” In the face of Tudor bullying, he begs them, “Do not be afraid”–this from a layman on the brink of his own execution.

Of course, that was then. This is now. America 2012 is a very long way, in so many different ways, from England 1535.

But readers might nonetheless profit in the coming months from some reflection on the life of Sir Thomas. We might also take a moment to remember More’s friend and fellow martyr, John Fisher, the only bishop who refused to bend to the king’s will; the man who shortly before his own arrest told his brother bishops: “. . . the fort has been betrayed even [by] them that should have defended it.”

Charles J. Chaput, a Capuchin Franciscan, is the archbishop of Philadelphia and the author of Render Unto Caesar.

About Fr. John Zuhlsdorf

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  1. mamajen says:

    I lived in England for 9 months about 11 years ago, and even though I’m not English I can relate to what Pearce felt like. I will refrain from specific examples, but I was left with the impression that nothing is sacred. I know my English husband feels the same way. Now that he’s on the outside looking in, he can see how ridiculous their efforts at modernization and political-correctness are. It’s frustrating that with such a rich, wonderful, unique history, they instead embrace and celebrate the weirdness and vulgarity that Europe has already been doing for quite some time. I feel angry and frustrated every time I see a hint of that same mentality taking hold in the United States.

    (p.s. I know there are many wonderful British and European readers here, and I realize that not everyone is the same. I hope you don’t find my comment insulting.)

  2. The Masked Chicken says:

    “It’s frustrating that with such a rich, wonderful, unique history, they instead embrace and celebrate the weirdness and vulgarity that Europe has already been doing for quite some time.”

    I realized this the first time I watched five minutes or less (all I could tolerate) of Benny Hill on PBS.

    The Chicken

  3. Rouxfus says:

    The awesome iPieta app (iOS & Android) is just released in a new version v. 7.0 which includes several works of and about St. Thomas More, including Utopia, letters, a biography written by the saint’s son-in-law, and an Elizabethan play about the saint parts of which are credited by scholars to William Shakespeare.

  4. Vecchio di Londra says:

    mamajen, Greetings, and I can well understand your impressions. I don’t find your depiction at all insulting, on the contrary, it’s very insightful. I often feel like an inner exile here. England still exists, but one must look very hard to find its old essence.

    On the history, Elton’s view is very much that of the typical postwar, post-protestant, atheist, liberal Cambridge don. He was (before changing his name) Gottfried Ehrenburg, a German-Jewish émigré historian, an apologist for Thomas Cromwell, the state-corporatist civil servant who invented the modern totalitarian state, and who helped Henry VIII to become the (in-denial) monster he was.

    Elton was very anglophile (he fought in the British Army in WWII) and he really was a great scholar, but he was very blind to the pious, Marian religious traditions of medieval England, and even when I was a Cambridge undergraduate, I thought there was something strangely detached about his approach to the Reformation. (Most of us in Britain come down on one side or the other.) If you read Elton’s magnum opus ‘England under the Tudors’, he has no ear for the English nuances at all. It reads more like a study in the confrontations of the Weimar Republic.

    Much better to read Eamon Duffy, who knows the quintessential medieval details intimately and from inside. Also a Cambridge don (by adoption): either Cambridge has changed a lot since my day, or he must have a daily struggle to survive and flourish.

  5. Suburbanbanshee says:

    I’ve never read The Sadness of Christ, but it sounds like an essential read.

    I know I got a lot out of his Dialogue of Comfort against Tribulation, which was another prison-written work. It was amazing that he could write so much wit and even humor into a book so deep and interesting. It’s a book that fills you with courage against despair.

  6. mike cliffson says:

    Viva Chaput!

  7. Pingback: On The More The Merrier « The Port Stands At Your Elbow

  8. Supertradmum says:

    We need more Thomas Mores. The Church is so weak and there are few laymen who are leaders and none in politics who share the status of More. That men and women need excellent models is ever more essential. Today, someone here in London said to me, “Why are there not more people of courage?”

    Can you imagine what More would think of Eire passing an abortion law by January-a done thing? Can you imagine his outrage and sense of conscience reeling at the lies, even within the Church in Europe, today?

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