You may have heard, but the Pope created a few more Cardinals today, 22 to be exact, though several are over 80 years of age and therefore cannot enter or vote in a conclave.
Each cardinal is assigned a church in Rome, a titular or diaconal church. Remember that the College is still divided into three groups, cardinal bishops, priests and deacons. With a few exceptions all cardinals are bishops or will be consecrated before being created cardinal (Jesuits are usually dispensed from being consecrated if they are over 80). Cardinals who are ordinary bishops of dioceses are generally made Cardinal Priests, while curial officials are generally made Cardinal Deacons. After a number of years a cardinal deacon can be “promoted” to the order of priests. Some cardinals in key positions, such as the Dean of the College or prefect of an important dicastery, are elevated to an open slot among the six Cardinal Bishops. There are seven cardinalatial titular dioceses, but the Dean always has two, Ostia and one other. There are also a four Cardinal Patriarchs of Eastern Churches, who rank in the College just after the Cardinal Bishops.
Here is a list of the new cardinals and their titles.
- Cardinal Fernando Filoni, diaconate of Nostra Signora di Coromoto in San Giovanni di Dio.
- Cardinal Manuel Monteiro de Castro, diaconate of San Domenico di Guzman.
- Cardinal Santos Abril y Castello, diaconate of San Ponziano.
- Cardinal Antonio Maria Veglio, diaconate of San Cesareo in Palatio.
- Cardinal Giuseppe Bertello, diaconate of Santi Vito, Modesto e Crescenzia.
- Cardinal Francesco Coccopalmerio, diaconate of San Giuseppe dei Falegnami.
- Cardinal Joao Braz de Aviz, diaconate of Sant’Elena fuori Porta Prenestina.
- Cardinal Edwin Frederick O’Brien, diaconate of San Sebastiano al Palatino.
- Cardinal Domenico Calcagno, diaconate of Annunciazione della Beata Vergine Maria a Via Ardeatina.
- Cardinal Giuseppe Versaldi, diaconate of Sacro Cuore di Gesu a Castro Pretorio.
- Cardinal George Alencherry, title of San Bernardo alle Terme.
- Cardinal Thomas Christopher Collins, title of San Patrizio.
- Cardinal Dominik Jaroslav Duka, O.P., title of Santi Marcellino e Pietro.
- Cardinal Willem Jacobus Eijk, title of San Callisto.
- Cardinal Giuseppe Betori, title of San Marcello.
- Cardinal Timothy Michael Dolan, title of Nostra Signora di Guadalupe a Monte Mario.
- Cardinal Rainer Maria Woelki, title of San Giovanni Maria Vianney.
- Cardinal John Tong Hon, title of Regina Apostolorum.
- Cardinal Lucian Muresan, title of Sant’Atanasio.
- Cardinal Julien Ries, diaconate of Sant’Antonio di Padova a Circonvallazione Appia.
- Cardinal Prosper Grech, O.S.A., diaconate of Santa Maria Goretti.
- Cardinal Karl Josef Becker, S.J., diaconate of San Giuliano Martire.
The ranking Cardinal Bishop is the Dean, Angelo Cardinal Sodano who has both Diocese of Albano and the Diocese of Ostia. The lowliest Cardinal Bishop is José Cardinal Saraiva Martins, C.M.F of Palestrina, though he can’t vote, which makes Tarcisio Cardinal Bertone, S.D.B. of Frascati the lowliest Cardinal Bishop who is an elector. He is the Camerlengo.
The ranking Cardinal Priest is Eugênio Cardinal de Araújo Sales of the title S. Gregorio VII, though he is not an elector. The top ranking elector in the order of priests is Godfried Cardinal Danneels of the title S. Anastasia. The lowliest Cardinal Priest is Lucian Cardinal Muresan of the title Sant’Atanasio, though he is over 80. The lowliest Cardinal Priest elector is John Cardinal Tong Hon of the title Regina Apostolorum.
The ranking Cardinal Deacon is Jean-Louis Pierre Cardinal Tauran of the diaconal church S. Apollinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine. He is still an elector. That makes him the Protodeacon. He gets to announce the name of the newly elected Pope. The lowliest Cardinal Deacon is Karl Josef Cardinal Becker, S.J. of the diaconal church. He is over 80. The lowliest Cardinal Deacon who can vote is Giuseppe Cardinal Versaldi of the church Sacro Cuore di Gesù a Castro Pretorio. If I remember correctly, as the lowliest deacon he seals or unseals the door of the conclave, or some such gesture.
Also, over at Catholic Hierarchy, today is the only day you will see these new Cardinals with zeros by their names for length of time they have been Cardinals.